This study investigates the prevalence of emotional abuse of elite child athletes by their coaches in the UK. Previous research has focused primarily on the parent–child relationship, with little attention given to date on the sports environment. Participants were 12 former elite child athletes who competed as internationals in their respective age groups. All participants had been identiﬁed as elite athletes between the ages of 8 and 16 years (M = yr, SD = yr) and had competitive careers of between 6 and 10 years. Participants were from the sports of diving ( N = 2), football ( N = 3), gymnastics ( N = 4), hockey, netball and track and ﬁeld athletics ( N = 1 each). The study was a retrospective analysis of their experiences as elite child athletes. (Age at interview: M = yr, SD = yr. male = 4, female = 8.) Thus, participants were reﬂecting on experiences from about 10 years previously, so their responses represented the residual impact of their experiences that had survived over this period. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and response-coding techniques. Abusive behaviours were categorized under eight headings: belittling, humiliating, shouting, scapegoating, rejecting, isolating, threatening and ignoring. Results showed that all ( N = 12) of the participants reported experiencing belittling and shouting by their coach, nine athletes reported frequent threatening behaviour, nine reported frequent humiliation, seven reported scapegoating, six reported rejection or being ignored and four reported being isolated when they were elite child athletes. All participants reported that the behaviour of their coaches changed and became more negative after they were identiﬁed as elite performers. Participants reported feeling stupid, worthless, upset, less conﬁdent, humiliated, depressed, fearful and angry as a result of the behaviour of their coaches. The results provide tentative evidence that the behaviour of some coaches is a threat to the psychological well-being of elite child athletes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
What you didn't mention is breathing. To develop breathing and keep up healthy stamena and vocal cords ...As a professional singer I swimm every day than do yoga and Caruso breathing exercise 40 steps.
Caruso was an ocean swimmer so was Dame Sutherland, Robert Merill a Yogi so was Roswenge he acctually did advenced yoga three hours a day. So one asks why? It's because of breath development. In singing if you want to be free you better perfect your breathing because it will affect everything from your phonation to your attachment of the voice. Italians call that appoggio. And they use to do a lot to develop that breath...And when you open the books of Lamperti,Manuel Garsia, Lilli Lehmann and Tetrazzini or Caruso etc...You will be surprised how much they pay attention...So Caruso did his 40 steps walk each day to stay in shape. Being an opera singer is a huge sucrifice and until you finisg your singing rituals the day is gone. So everyone who doesn't have a clue what a great breather and technician is can't comment eather.