Results: Out of 4028 volunteers, 172 (%) tested positive for HBsAg. All 172 serum samples were genotyped by PCR for both HBV and HCV. Out of 172 HBsAg positive samples, 89 (%) showed a single HBV genotype D infection, followed by genotypes A (%), F (%), B (%), E (%), and C (%). Out of 43 positive for HCV by PCR from the two universities and Anklesaria Hospital, % showed infection with 3a, followed by genotypes 5a (%), 6a (%), 3b (%) and 2a (%). Hence, the co-infection rate of both these viruses is 25% (43/172) among HBs Ag positive individuals.
The different mechanical properties of alveoli in ARDS may be interpreted as having varying time constants —the product of alveolar compliance × resistance . Slow alveoli are said to be "kept open" using PEEP , a feature of modern ventilators which maintains a positive airway pressure throughout the whole respiratory cycle. A higher mean pressure cycle-wide slows the collapse of diseased alveoli, but it has to be weighed against the corresponding elevation in P l /plateau pressure. Newer ventilatory approaches attempt to maximize mean airway pressure for its ability to "recruit" collapsed alveoli while minimizing the shear stress caused by frequent openings and closings of aerated units.