There are many signals that control catabolism. Most of the known signals are hormones and the molecules involved in metabolism itself. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many of the hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate. The so-called classic catabolic hormones known since the early 20th century are cortisol , glucagon , and adrenaline (and other catecholamines ). In recent decades, many more hormones with at least some catabolic effects have been discovered, including cytokines , orexin (also known as hypocretin ), and melatonin . [ citation needed ]
For children, these reactions should not be in balance. In a child, the anabolic reactions have to be greater than the catabolic. Boys start their growth spurt after girls. That’s why when they are in 7th or 8th grade, the girls are still taller than the boys. The boys change a couple years after the girls. Guys may gain 2-3 inches in that growth spurt between 14-17 years of age. During that growing period they will eat up all the food in your refrigerator. They are growing like crazy during that time. But what happens to both boys and girls at 18-19 is that if they keep eating the same way, they won’t grow taller anymore but only wider. This is the phenomena everybody notices.
The next study we’re going to look at is how BCAA supplementation help preserves muscle in times of weight loss or muscle wasting conditions or diseases. This study looked at BCAA supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis . Dr. Willis Maddrey looked at how BCAA supplementation effected nitrogen retention of those with severe liver disease . The group was split into two, one half were given an intravenous (IV) solution at night enriched with BCAAs and the other half, the control group, placebo. Nitrogen balance improved in those supplementing BCAAs compared to the control, which translates to muscle being spared overnight and not used for energy. Again, the BCAAs were shown to be anti-catabolic in this instance.