. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center
for Infectious Diseases, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases,
1300 Rampart Road, Colorado State University Foothills Research Campus,
. Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522. CDC posts fact sheets about
Japanese encephalitis and about arboviral encephalitis at its website.
http:///ncidod/dvbid/ (Japanese encephalitis)
http:///ncidod/dvbid/arbor/ (arboviral encephalitis)
The outcome of the disease varies and depends on factors such as initial cause, age, severity of the case, and strength of the immune system. For example, people who are HIV positive, have cancer , or who have other illnesses have a weaker immune system and are less able to withstand another disease. These patients have a wide range of outcomes that range from good to poor. In general, those people with mild cases and otherwise relatively good health usually will recover without any problems. Poorer outcomes can be summarized as follows:
As mentioned previously, there are other nonviral causes (see above) of encephalitis, so the treatment for a given case depends on the doctor's working diagnosis. If the encephalitis is due to non-viral causes, then other treatments, specific to the cause, are warranted. Many clinicians consult an infectious-disease, immunology, or cancer expert to help manage the various types of treatments. With the exception of herpes encephalitis, the mainstay of treatment is symptom relief. People with viral encephalitis are kept hydrated with IV fluids while monitoring for brain swelling. Anticonvulsants like lorazepam ( Ativan ) can be given for seizure control. Steroids have not been established as being effective although they may still be used in some cases. Diuretics may be used to lower intracranial pressure in individuals who have encephalitis and increased intracranial pressure.