Intranasal corticosteroid list


The images show a normal dog white blood cell: the important anatomy is of the cell is indicated (cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm).

When the parainfluenza virus or adenovirus enters the body of a dog, it attaches to the cell membrane of a particular body-cell-type that it has been specially 'designed' to invade. The virus has specific surface proteins, called attachment proteins, that allow itto recognize, bind to and access certain cell types. For example, in canine cough, the cells that the virus prefers to invade are the cells of the upper respiratory tract and mucous membranes (conjunctiva of the eye and lining of the mouth and nose). When a kennel cough virus attaches to the right kind of cell, one of two things may happen:
1) the virus outer membrane fuses with the cell membrane (in the case of paramyxovirus), resulting in the virus capsid and RNA being released into the cytoplasm of the cell OR
2) the cell membrane reaches outwards, surrounding the adenovirus or parainfluenza 2 virus inside a 'bubble' of cell membrane (the process is termed endocytosis ). This bubble gets released into the cell's cytoplasm where the virus fuses with it, resulting in the release of the viral RNA or DNA into the cytoplasm.
Either way, the genetic material of the virus (RNA or DNA) ends up within the cytoplasm of the host cell.

Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system (., corticosteroids) are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles , for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If a patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin ( IG ) may be indicated (see the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information). If chickenpox or measles develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.



When to worry:
Anaphylaxis is an emergency and must be seen immediately by a vet. Often the reaction occurs in the vet clinic (sometimes within seconds of vaccination) or soon after the animal has left the clinic, although it can take up to 24 hours to manifest (so you should keep a close eye on the animal at home). The vet will usually rush the dog straight out to a treatment room, where it will receive oxygen, IV fluids, anti-histamines, adrenaline, anti-inflammatories and sometimes other drugs to aid in the treating of low blood pressure.



In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO 2 retention (eg, those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), MORPHABOND ER may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO 2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with MORPHABOND ER. Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of MORPHABOND ER in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.

Patients should use beclomethasone dipropionate at regular intervals since its effectiveness depends on their regular use. The patient should take the medication as directed. It is not acutely effective, and the prescribed dosage should not be increased. Instead, nasal vasoconstrictors or oral antihistamines may be needed until the effects of this drug are fully manifested. One to 2 weeks may pass before relief is obtained. The patient should contact the doctor if symptoms do not improve, or if the condition worsens, or if sneezing or nasal irritation occurs. For the proper use of this unit and to attain maximum improvement, the patient should read and follow carefully the accompanying patient's instructions.

Intranasal corticosteroid list

intranasal corticosteroid list

In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO 2 retention (eg, those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), MORPHABOND ER may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO 2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with MORPHABOND ER. Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of MORPHABOND ER in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.

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