Ormoni steroidei biosintesi

Progestins , the most important of which is progesterone , are the other type of female sex hormone and are named for their role in maintaining pregnancy (pro- gestation ). Estrogens and progestins are secreted cyclically during menstruation . During the menstrual cycle , the ruptured ovarian follicle (the corpus luteum ) of the ovary produces progesterone, which renders the uterine lining receptive to the implantation of a fertilized ovum . Should this occur, the placenta becomes the main source of progesterone, without which the pregnancy would terminate. As pregnancy progresses, placental production of progesterone increases, and these high doses suppress ovulation , preventing a second conception . The contraceptive quality of progesterone led to the development of structurally modified progestins and estrogens—the oral contraceptives known as birth-control pills, used by women to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

Because non-genomic pathways include any mechanism that is not a genomic effect, there are various non-genomic pathways. However, all of these pathways are mediated by some type of steroid hormone receptor found at the plasma membrane. [13] Ion channels, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), and membrane fluidity have all been shown to be affected by steroid hormones. [9] Of these, GPCR linked proteins are the most common. For more information on these proteins and pathways, visit the steroid hormone receptor page.

Ormoni steroidei biosintesi

ormoni steroidei biosintesi


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