The Panel decided that the diagnostic section of the 2003 Guideline required updating. After review of the recommendations for diagnosis published by the 2005 International Consultation of Urologic Diseases 12 and reiterated in 2009 in an article by Abrams et al (2009), the Panel unanimously agreed that the contents were valid and reflected "best practices". 13 The diagnostic guidelines by Abrams et al (2009) are revisited in Appendix A7. 13 Two treatment algorithms, one on the basic management of LUTS in men and one on the detailed management for persistent bothersome LUTS —were adapted for this Guideline and are included in Appendix A1 as Figures and , respectively. 13
Prostatic steroid-binding protein, whose expression is stimulated by androgens, consists of two subunits, one containing the polypeptides C1 and C3 and the other containing the polypeptides C2 and C3. We have isolated and sequenced cDNA clones specific for C3 mRNA and used them to isolate and characterize genomic clones for two C3 genes. Both genes are kilobases with identical exon/intron arrangements, which is similar to the organization of the C1 and C2 genes, suggesting that they may have arisen by duplications of an ancestral gene. Finally, homologous human genes have not been detected.