While serious complications do not occur frequently, it is possible for sinus infection to cause a direct extension of infection into the brain through a sinus wall, creating a life-threatening emergency (for example, meningitis or brain abscess). In addition, other adjacent structures can become infected and develop problems, such as osteomyelitis of bones in the skull and infection around the eye (orbital cellulitis). Rarely, these infections (mainly bacterial and fungal organisms) may cause death. The most susceptible individuals to complications are patients with suppressed immune systems, diabetes , and relatively rarely from multiple trauma injuries that may occur in natural disasters.
The only clear neoplastic finding in rats dosed subcutaneously with synthetic calcitonin salmon was an increase in the incidence of pituitary adenomas in male Fisher 344 rats and female Sprague Dawley rats after one year of dosing and male Sprague Dawley rats dosed for one and two years. In female Sprague Dawley rats, the incidence of pituitary adenomas after two years was high in all treatment groups (between 80% and 92% including the control groups) such that a treatment-related effect could not be distinguished from natural background incidence. The lowest dose in male Sprague Dawley rats that developed an increased incidence of pituitary adenomas after two years of dosing ( International Units/kg/day) is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended intranasal dose in humans (200 International Units/day) based on body surface area conversion between rats and humans and a 20-fold conversion factor to account for decreased clinical exposure via the intranasal route. The findings suggest that calcitonin salmon reduced the latency period for development of non-functioning pituitary adenomas.