Upon cell death, the proteolytic enzymes stored in pancreatic acinar cells immediately begin reacting with the cells themselves, destroying normal cell structure. (Ideally, histological specimens are fixed by perfusion of fixative through blood vessels, to preserve cells quickly and simultaneously throughout the specimen. This procedure is not available for post-mortem specimens, where the deceased may wait several hours before autopsy. Even specimens removed surgically are usually dropped as bulk samples into fixative, so preservation may vary between the center and the periphery of the specimen.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.
Sublingual medications are orally disintegrating or dissolving medications that are administered by being placed under the tongue. These medications are transferred to the bloodstream from the mucous membranes in the mouth after dissolving, allowing for quick absorption that avoids the loss of potency which may come with first-pass metabolism in the stomach and liver.  Doctors may recommend sublingual medications to treat certain conditions, or if a patient has trouble swallowing or digesting medication.  Understanding how to administer sublingual medication can help ensure proper dosing and efficacy of the medication.