In its inactive state, GR is present as a cytoplasmic complex and associated with different chaperone proteins such as heat shock protein (hsp) 90, hsp70, hsp56, hsp40, p23 and src [ 19 ] . After binding to GC, cytoplasmic GR undergoes conformational change that includes dissociation of chaperone proteins and dimerization of receptor. This allows translocation of hormone receptor complex into the nucleus. In nucleus, GR binds to palindromic nucleotide sequences in promoter region of target genes (GC response elements, GRE) and this interaction activates (transactivation) or inhibits (transrepression) gene transcription depending on type of GRE sequence ( Figure 2 ). Activation of glucocorticoid-responsive genes involves recruitment of co-activator proteins such as Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding proteins, which have histone acetyltransferase activity that acetylates core histones [ 20 ] . This initiates chromatin remodelling and initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II resulting in gene activation.
Pregnancy -- Low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy are associated with gestational diabetes , pre-eclampsia , and small infants.  Although taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy raises blood levels of vitamin D in the mother at term,  the extent of benefits for the mother or fetus is unclear.    Pregnant women who take an adequate amount of vitamin D during gestation may experience a lower risk of pre-eclampsia  and positive immune effects.  Pregnant women often do not take the recommended amount of vitamin D.